Carex of Illinois Beach State Park

Carex of Illinois Beach State Park

Linda W. Curtis

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Carex aquatilis, a perennial sedge, sprouts early in May from cordlike rhizomes, growing over a loose hydrosoil of peat and rounded grains of sand known as quicksand. Illinois Beach State Park is part of an eighteen mile-long corrugated sand plain along Lake Michigan that extends from Kenosha, Wisconsin to the Waukegan Harbor in Lake County, Illinois.

Prepared for the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission

Report revised March 1, 2013 Linda W. Curtis


    Figure 1. Aerial Photo of IBSP by Ken Weik, LFC emeritus
    Figure 2. Aerial Photo of IBSP showing Dead River in 1939
     Table 1. Herbaria with Dunesland and IBS Specimens
     Table 2. Carex species collected by F. C. Gates (1912)
     Table 3. Carex species at the Field Museum in Lake Co., IL
     Table 4. Carex species collected by L. M. Umbach in Lake Co. IL 8
     Table 5. IBSP Carex Specimens at Lake Forest College Herbarium
     Table 6. IBSP Carex collected by Floyd Swink, Morton Arboretum 1960-2000
     Table 7. IBSP Carex collected by Marlin Bowles
     Table 8. IBSP Carex Specimens Chicago Botanic Garden Herbarium
     Table 9. Dunesland Carex at Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium
    Table 10. IBSP Carex collected by Kral at Missouri Botanical Herbarium
    Table 11. Carex of Illinois Natural Areas Inventories: IBSP and Spring Bluff
    Table 12. Carex of the Zion ridge-beach plain
    Table 13. IBSP Carex specimens in herbaria


The previous annual reports were revised as Midwest herbaria continued to contribute data. However, the Illinois State Museum Herbarium’s website grouped species by county, without viewable labels. Fortunately, Dr. Hong Qian (ISM) photographed the fspecies in question on their herbarium sheets and three were deleted from the inventory. Currently 43 species of Carex are confirmed as herbaria specimens from IBSP. Carex eburnea was deleted as it was found on a bluff north of Lake Forest, not in the Zion ridge-beach plain. C. emoryi was collected at Fox Lake, and Verne Graham’s C. trisperma was labeled “ sphagnum swamp 3 miles east of Antioch,” and were removed. Graham’s C. hyalinolepis and C. festucacae tentatively remain. The earliest plant collector from Dunesland was Frank Caleb Gates (1887-1955). Gates collected his earliest specimens, including C. buxbaumii, in the Waukegan Moorland in 1907 as part of his research for his thesis at U-Illinois. The Gates’ collection of 1907- 1911 has been scanned and can be viewed at three herbaria websites. Some specimens were identified as different species and some were annotated with new names. Another early collector was Levi M. Umbach (1853-1918), a professor at Northwestern College, Naperville. He collected seven Carex species from the Illinois Dunesland 1908- 1912. Dr. Mark Wetter and Ted Cochrane (Wis) separated Umbach’s specimen of C. polygama from one sheet and annotated them as C. buxbaumi and C. pellita. Dr. Gerould Wilhelm recently determined that some of the 17 Carices from IBSP at the dormant Lake Forest College Herbarium were different species. The LFC Herbarium, (ETL) is curated by student Victoria A. Jones and now a member of Index Herbariorum. This revision has new information that reveals the Waukegan Dunes is partly both west and east of the Union Pacific Railway and another interesting map reference was added. C. garberi was taken off Table 10 for Chiwaukee Prairie. Milde and Nelson’s C. garberi specimen was from 2001, not 2011. Anton Reznicek (MICH) determined by library loan from the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium that C. vaginata collected by Robert Kral was C. tetanica. Only C. multimoda remains to be determined from the Kral collection. Robert Naczi (NYBG) and Anton Reznicek realized my image of C. conjuncta was a young C. muehlenbergii, a species already vouchered. Page 22 now has six images. A paragraph was added under the Chicago Botanic Garden table, explaining the work of Plants of Concern (POC) and the Millennium Seed Bank Project (MSBP). Mark Wetter (WIS) discovered more of Umbach’s Carex collection, and those are now added to Table 4.

Carex of Illinois Beach State Park

ABSTRACT: Illinois Beach State Park (IBSP) is located on the Lake Michigan coast in Lake County on the Zion beach-ridge plain. More than 740 plant species have been reported to grow in IBSP and the adjoining Spring Bluff Preserve, Chiwaukee Prairie and Waukegan Dunes. Fieldwork in 2010-2012 resulted in six new species: C. annectens E. P. Bicknell var. xanthocarpa (Kuk.) Wiegand, C. conjuncta Boott, C. cristatella Britt., C. grisea Wahlenb., C. interior L. H. Bailey, C. molesta Mack., and C. sparganioides Willd. During 2010-2013, more herbaria inventoried and bar-coded their Carex specimens resulting in 43 vouchers including the six new species from field research for the IBSP plant inventory.


MapIllinois Beach State Park is part of the Zion beach-ridge plain, and prior to the IBSP origin in1947, was known as Dunesland, the Waukegan Flats or Waukegan Moors. A migratory coastal landform, the entire sand body resulted from erosion by natural wave action and was deposited by long shore drift along 18 miles from Kenosha, Wisconsin southward to Waukegan, Illinois. A corrugated topography (Figure 1) of alternating ridges and swales remain from the deposition of shorelines over the past 3,700 years (ISGS 1972). Many natural plant communities exist (Krohn Jr. 1989). The topography includes the beach, foredunes, savanna on ridges, both dry and mesic sand prairies, mesic swales, sedge meadows, wetlands with interdunal ponds, seeps, and a panne, a globally rare wetland. The specimens were collected from both units of IBSP. The northern unit includes North Point and Camp Logan near the Wisconsin Border, with Lake County Spring Bluff Nature Preserve in Winthrop Harbor adjoining on the IBSP western boundary. Zion’s Hosah Park and the Commonwealth Edison Power Plant separate the north and south IBSP units. The southern unit includes a resort, campground, and public walking trails to the Lake Michigan beach. Bull Creek enters the southern unit and filters into the Dead River watershed. The southern boundary of IBSP and its nature preserve partly adjoin an industrial complex but the IBSP beach is contiguous to the Waukegan Beach and Harbor.

1989 aerial

Figure 1. 1989 Aerial Photo of IBSP by Ken Weik, LFC emeritus


Permission to collect in the IBSP Nature Preserve was granted by the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission with stringent requirements. Permission to collect in the Park was also granted by the IBSP site superintendent, Greg Behm. Maps and aerial photographs from 1939 (Figure 2), 1946, 1970, and 2010 included the boundaries of the IBSP from the Lake Michigan coast to the Union Pacific (formerly Chicago-Northwestern) railroad on the Holocene Bluff Ridge that follows the Glenwood beach of Glacial Lake Chicago. Changes included new roads, evidence of sand mining, a former railway spur for ice and sand, and a change from open marsh in 1939 (pre- Wadsworth Road entry) to a first-growth swamp forest along Bull Creek near the IBSP entrance (Lake County GIS Mapping Division 2012). Prior to becoming the IBSP in 1947, only two roads accessed the dunes. The most recent entry, Wadsworth Road, replaced the southern entrance of Beach Road, now closed. Wadsworth Road originally extended straight east to the campground and beach, but in 1993 was diverted as a loop through the Dunesland to the IBSP Nature Center and trails, coursing partway on the former Beach Road. The northern boundary of the Nature Preserve is the former Beach Road and includes the southern part of the Dead River Watershed.


Figure 2. Aerial Photo of Dunesland showing Dead River (upper right), industrial lagoon (lower south), and Chicago Northwestern Railway (left) in 1939.

Flowering stems (culms), no whole plants, were collected and photographed with a GPS recording camera during fieldwork in 2010 and 2011 (Appendix A-permit). Inventories of IBSP vouchered specimens were not available from the IDNR, the INPC, or the INAI so Midwest herbaria curators were contacted and their herbaria websites were searched for IBSP specimens. Data was steadily accessed from 12 Midwest herbaria (Table 1). TABLE 1. Herbaria with Dunesland or Illinois Beach State Park specimens

Acronym Herbaria No. of Carex species
CHIC Chicago Botanic Garden Herbarium 5
F Chicago Field Museum Herbarium 20
ILL University of Illinois Plant Biology Herbarium 10
ILLS Illinois Natural History Survey Herbarium 8
ISM Illinois State Museum Herbarium 28
ETL Lake Forest College Herbarium 17
MICH University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Herbarium 2
MO Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium 8
MOR Morton Arboretum Herbarium 31
MIL Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium 4
DEK Northern Illinois University Herbarium-DeKalb 1
WIS University of Wisconsin-Madison Herbarium 4

Lab work included scanning fresh culms aside a centimeter ruler, then imaging sheaths and perigynia with a camera mounted bioscope. Floras with identification keys were consulted, as well as comparisons to photographs and images on herbaria websites. As required in the research permits (Appendix A), the Illinois specimens were sent to curated herbaria: Dr. Andrew Hipp at the Morton Arboretum (MOR), Dr. Hong Qian at the Illinois State Museum (ISM), and to Dr. Rick Phillippe of Illinois Natural History Survey Herbarium (ILLS). Wisconsin specimens were sent to Ted Cochrane and Mark Wetter at the UW-Madison Herbarium and Dr. Sara Hoot at the UW-Milwaukee Herbarium. Images of Wisconsin specimens from Chiwaukee Prairie adjoining IBSP were sent to Robert Freckmann Herbarium website, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.


Topographic maps and spatial analysis revealed the Illinois Beach State Park has nearly as much area of sand prairie as the Savanna Army Depot, the largest in the state. However, the moisture regimes differ. The corrugated topography of IBSP includes prairies that grade into ridges and swales that the Army Depot lacked. Most of the prairie below the Holocene Ridge parallels marshy swales, sedge meadows and wet prairie with ponds. Mesic prairies and oak savannas on ridges merged into dry sand prairies. A newer habitat, a swamp forest, receives Bull Creek’s flow into the IBSP. The1864 Benton Township map shows one of the inflowing tributaries of Bull Creek began in a property of 160 acres owned by Ich. Bull. The creek flowed east under the railway into marshland and looped south into the Dead River watershed. The 1939 aerial photograph shows trees lining the creek that appeared to flow due east. Access into the Dunesland in 1939 was Beach Road to the South, and 21st to the North. By 1974 Wadsworth Road was constructed as the single entry and cut straight east through the marsh to the beach. The original Dead Lake, drawn in the 1864 map, was drained, but a near-by sand borrow is the new “Dead Lake” on recent maps. (Wiki Central 2012). In the 1990’s, Wadsworth Road entry was restructured to send traffic south in a loop that joined the older Beach Road, but kept the straight east road as the Campground entry. Two borrow ponds were created, S pond near the entrance and Campground Pond. In the 2010 aerial, Bull Creek has a first-growth swamp forest of Acer saccharinum (silver maple), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), Acer negundo (box elder), and Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). Bull Creek formed an oxbow and flowed south into ponds and then filtered into the Dead River Watershed. No stumps from previous woodlands were noted during fieldwork. Severe winds uprooted thousands of trees on July 1, 2011 east to west, and again on July 11th with west to east tree-fall. The South Unit of IBSP was closed to the public and researchers. Four new species that were non-vouchered and non-inventoried were discovered in the first-growth Bull Creek swamp forest in 2011. They are: C. cristatella, C. grisea, C. molesta, and C. sparganioides.. One culm of C. viridula, a threatened species in Illinois, was sent to the Illinois State Museum. A Sighting Report was sent to IDNR-Illinois Natural Heritage Database giving its locations. Other E & T species were the threatened C. aurea, and endangered C. garberi reported to grow with C. conoidea, C. crawei, and C. tetanica. The associates in sedge meadows were C. lasiocarpa, C. pellita, C. buxbaumii, C. sterilis, and C. stipata. C. granularis var. haleana grew along Sand Lake, a borrow, in Camp Logan. Tussocks of C. stricta and the newly discovered C. interior grew along the marshy edges of the floodplain behind the Nature Center. C. annectens var xanthocarpa, a new species, grew in a crevice of the IBSP Nature Center parking lot. Weed-whacked before mature in 2011, the plant survived with culms and mature seed heads in 2012. In early literature, F.C. Gates listed 16 Carex species as part of his University of Illinois graduate research and later published Vegetation of the Beach Area (1912) (Table 2). Gates’ specimen of C. aurea is now annotated and filed as C. garberi at the Field Museum. Gates added a bog sedge, C. trisperma, without a collection number to his 1912 article list as collected by Dr. H. A. Gleason. Of the two specimens collected by Gleason, one is now at MICH and another at ILLS, both inland from Lake Villa, Illinois, which has Gavin Bog in Grant Forest Preserve and another at IDNR’s Cedar Lake Bog. Neither specimen was collected during 1907-09. Verne Graham’s C. trisperma was labeled as located in a Sphagnum bog 3 miles east of Antioch. Table 2. Carex collected by F. C. Gates (1912)

Carex species Collection Number Date m-d-y Barcode or Accession Number C. aquatilis =riparia 2498 6-8-1908 V0022529F C. aurea = garberi Annotated 1-14-2012 2503 6-8-1908 ILL 10767 C. buxbaumii 2504 6-8-1908 V0022630F & ILL 10769 C. buxbaumii 1668 6-16-1907 ILL 10800 C. comosa 2917 8-7-1908 V0022658F & ILL 10770 C. crawei 2502 6-8-1908 V0022712F & ILL 10771 C. crawei 2827 7-8-1908 V0022713F & ILL 10772 C. garberi = C. aurea 2503 7-8-1908 V0022830F C. granularis 3054 6-22-1909 V0022871F C. hystericina (hystricina) 2787 7-1-1908 V0022949F & ILL 10773 C. lacustris (riparia) 2786 7-1-1908 V0023009F C. lasiocarpa (filiformis) 3027 7-16-1909 1375247 MICH C. meuhlenbergii 2465 6-8-1908 1379831 MICH & V0023130F ILL 10774 C. muehlenbergii 3163 7-19-1909 1379853 MICH & V0023131F ILL 10775 C. pellita (lanuginosa) 3027 6-16-1909 V0023205F C. stipata 3052 6-22-1909 V0023465F and ILL 10777 C. stricta 3026 6-16-1909 V0023486F C. umbellata 2474 6-8-1908 V0023588F & ILL 10779 & MICH1390814 C. viridula (oederi pumila) 2509 6-8-1908 V0023627F & ILL 10781 & ILL 10780
Field Museum Herbarium, (F), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Herbarium (MICH), Illinois Natural History Survey (ILLS), and University of Illinois (ILL) Gates collections are in three herbaria. Specimen 3027, dated 7-16- 1909, C. lasiocarpa = filiformis is at MICH and were annotated as C. lasiocarpa in 1998 by Dr. Anton Reznicek from the University of Michigan Herbarium. Dr. Reznicek also annotated specimens at the Chicago Field Museum Herbarium for the vPlants Project in 2002. One sheet labeled C. filiformis had two different species, C. pellita and C. lanuginosa. Another change, Gate’s C. riparia 2498 at U-Michigan herbarium was annotated as C. aquatilis var. substricta while another labeled C. riparia 2786 was annotated as C. lacustris at the Chicago Field Museum Herbarium (Table 3). The earliest literature describing Lake Michigan Dunesland was by pioneer ecologist Cowles (1899) who collected plants primarily from the Indiana Dunes, collected the first specimen of C. aurea from the Illinois Dunesland on 8-13-1910. (ISM 3513) . Table 3. Carex Species at Field Museum of Dunesland in Lake County Illinois (
Carex species Number Mo-day-yr Barcode C. aquatilis (riparia) Gates 2498 Steyermark & Standley 28109 6-08-1908 6-13-1940 V0022529F V0022523F C. brevior Swink 7-04-1951 V0022600F C. buxbaumii Gates 2504 6-08-1908 V0022630F C. cephalophora Steyermark & Standley 28162 6-13-1940 V0022659F C. comosa Gates 2917 8-07-1908 V0022658F C. conoidea Steyermark & Standley 68191 6-13-1940 V0022709F C. crawei Gates 2502 6-08-1908 7-08-1908 V0022712F V0022713F C. garberi = C. aurea Gates 2827 7-08-1908 V0022830F C. granularis Gates 2503 6-22-1909 V0022871F C. hystericina (hystricina) Gates 3054 7-01-1908 6-14-1940 V0022949F V0022953F C. lacustris (riparia) Gates 2787 Steyermark & Standley 28139 7-01-1908 V0023009F C. lasiocarpa (filiformis) Gates 2786 7-16-1909 5-31-1950 V0023027F C. muehlenbergii Steyermark & Standley 69931 6-08-1908 V0023130F C. muehlenbergii Gates 2465 7-19-1909 V0023131F C. pellita (lanuginosa) Gates 3163 Gates 3027 6-16-1909 6-13-1940 V0023205F V0023210F C. richardsonii Steyermark & Standley 28201 6-13-1940 V0023327F C. sartwellii Swink Steyermark & Standley 28138 7-13-1940 V0023361F C. stipata Gates 3052 6-22-1909 V0023465F C. stricta Gates 3026 6-16-1909 V0023486F C. umbellata Gates 2474 6-08-1908 V0023588F viridula (oederi pumila) Gates 2509 Steyermark 28192 40827 6-08-1908 6-13-1940 8-09-1940 V0023627F V0023634F V0023635F
Pepoon (1927) wrote of the Dunesland of Indiana and collected C. lupuliformis from the Glenwood Beach and C. hystericina in the reed swamp nearest the beach in Lake County, Indiana and Cook County, Illinois, none in Lake County, Illinois. Dunes Park, Illinois was changed to Beach Park to avoid confusion with Indiana’s Dunes Park, Lake County. Another early collector, L.M. Umbach, a professor at Northwestern University in Naperville, collected in Lake County, Illinois, but also the Indiana Dunes in Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois along the Lake Michigan coast (Table 4). Table 4. Carex collected by L. M. Umbach, Lake County, Illinois 1908-1912
Carex species Collection Number Date Mo-day-yr Barcode or Accession Number C. bebbii 3745 7-03-1909 MOR 36015 C. buxbaumii 5223 5-30-1911 MOR 7447 WIS v026328 C. buxbaumii 2736 7-01-1908 WIS v0262926 C. buxbaumii 31635 6-05-1909 WIS v0263927 C. crawei 3765 7-03-1909 MIL 118113 C. crawei 37884 3765 7-03-1909 WIS v0263875 WIS v0263930 C. crawei 3313 6-11-1909 WIS v0264833 C. conoidea 3306 7-11-1909 MOR 7483 C. conoidea 3306 3312 6-11-1909 WIS v0263875 WIS v0263874 C. conoidea 5375 6-08-1912 WIS v0263876 C. granularis var. haleana 3229 6-05-1909 MOR 35978 C. hystericina 3283 6-11-1909 MOR 35974 C. hystericina 2225 7-01-1908 WIS v0263931 C. hystericina 5372 6-08-1912 WIS v0236933 WIS v0236934 C. molesta 3741 7-03-1909 MOR 35980 C. muehlenbergii 3763 7-03-1909 MOR 7708 WIS v0264838 C. muehlenbergii 5217 5-30-1911 MOR 35992 C. pellita (lanuginosa) 31653 6-05-1909 WIS v0263935 C. pellita (filiformis) 5226 5-30-1911 WIS v0264834 C. pellita (houghtonii)) 5376 6-08-1912 WIS v0264836 C. pellita (filiformis) 3309 6-11-1909 WIS v0264837 C. sterilis 36020 5-30-1911 MOR 36020 C. stipata 5216 5-30-1911 MOR 7814 C. stricta 5281 5-30-1911 MOR 7833 C. viridula 3307 6-11-1909 MOR 7893 WIS v0264841 C. viridula (flava) 2240 7-01-1908 WIS v0264839 C. viridula (flava) 3195 6-05-1909 WIS v0264840 C. vulpinoidea 3756 3758 7-03-1909 MOR 7902 WIS v0263924 WIS v0263925
Umbach collected 14 species, many with duplicates, in Lake County, Illinois from 1908- 1912 during the same period as F.C. Gates. Although Gates had collected on ten dates for his graduate research, Umbach’s collection dates were different from Gates’, except 7- 01-1908 when Umbach had collected a C. buxbaumii, C. hystericina, and C. viridula while Gates collected C. hystericina, and C. lacustris. Recently discovered, Umbach’s herbarium sheet of C. polygama had two different species, C. buxbaumii and C. pellita. These were separated and given new 5 digit accession numbers by Ted Cochrane and Mark Wetter at the U-Wisconsin herbarium. C. houghtonii and a C. filiformis were annotated C. lanuginosa that is now C. pellita. Dr. Elizabeth Lunn, author of Plants of the Illinois Dunesland (1982) collected 17 Carex from the IBSP for the Lake Forest College herbarium but did not include them in her book (Table 5). I compared those specimens in 1975 to Carex species collected for my 1974 Master’s Thesis on the Benedict Prairie, an inland clay soil prairie in Kenosha County, Wisconsin (Curtis 1974). Dr. James Zimmerman (WIS) confirmed the seven Benedict Prairie Carices except C. bicknellii, and that was annotated as C. molesta. Table 5. IBSP Carex at Lake Forest College Herbarium (ETL) (
Species Collection Number Mo-da-yr C. bebbii 1163b 6-25-1967 C. blanda 3086 4-14-1969 C. buxbaumii 5083 5-18-1970 C. comosa 844 9-24-1966 C. conoidea 1010 1002 5-27-1967 C. crawei 697 1226 7-08-1967 C. granularis 4050 5-16-1969 C. garberi 11 6-20-1967 C. muehlenbergii 1225 1175 1056 1207 1172 6-25-1967 C. pellita 1057 5403 1131 5-22-1972 & 6-23-1967 C. pensylvanica 5 8 927 972 5-20-1967 C. scoparia 1163b 1161 6-25-1967 5-27-1967 C. stricta 5411 1008 6-25-1967 5-31-1969 C. stipata 4040 7-13-1969 C. suberecta 1129 5082 6-23-1968 C. tetanica 5182 5-18-1970 5-19-1971 C. viridula 115 838 840 1206 1291 1323 1325 1332 1394 2059 7-02-1967 to 8-31-1968
Dr. Zimmerman (WIS) gave determinations of Dr. Lunn’s LFC specimens in 1967: C. bebbii, C. comosa, C. conoidea, C. lanuginosa, C. meadii, C. muehlenbergii, C. penysylvanica, and C. viridula. Determinations by Floyd Swink (MOR) in 1969 were C. blanda, C. comosa, C. davisii, C. muehlenbergii and C. viridula. Dr. Gerould Wilhelm annotated the specimens on 1-24-2013. C. davisii was C. granularis. C. stricta was C. stipata, and a C. tetanica and a C. meadii were C. crawei. C. lanuginosa is C. pellita. Swink and Wilhelm’s Plants of the Chicago Region (1994) had 16 Carex species with reference to the Illinois Dunes in Lake County, Illinois. Floyd Swink collected ten Carices (Table 6) while Gerould Wilhelm collected C. richardsonii and C. tonsa in 1986. Marlin Bowles, also Morton Arboretum, collected Carices at IBSP in 1987-8 (Table 7). Table 6. IBSP Carex collected by Floyd Swink, Morton Arboretum 1960-2000
Carex species Accession number Date C. brevior MOR 7973 V0022630F 7-05-1948 7-04-1951 C. buxbaumii MOR 7443 6-08-1947 C. conoidea MOR100033 6-05-1948 C crawei MOR 7485 6-08-1947 C. heliophila (pensylvanica) MOR 99960 6-08-1947 C. pellita Swink Johnson Betz MOR66126 7-4-1986 C. richardsonii V0023327F 5-20-1950 C. sartwellii MOR100026 6-08-1947 C. stipata MOR 100040 6-05-1948 C. umbellata MOR 67786 6-08-1947
The list of Carex collected from the IBSP includes species that were renamed, some several times, an indication of the difficulty of Carex identification, but also taxonomic changes. C. heliophila was originally C. pensylvanica when collected by Swink 7-8- 1947, but was changed to var. digyna by Wilhelm 2-15-1992. Jason Sturner annotated it C. inops ssp. heliophila on 12-21-2006. In Flora of Illinois: Carex, the variety now is a species: C. helophilia and C. granularis var. heleana is C. heleana (Mohlenbrock 2011). Table 7. IBSP Carex collected by Marlin Bowles (
Carex species Collection No. Accession number Date C. aurea 676b MOR 67908 6-22-1987 C. crawei 733 MOR 81845 7-14-1988 C. garberi 675 MOR 66786 7-22-1987 C. tetanica 676a MOR 67787 7-22-1987 C. tonsa 735 MOR 81483 7-14-1988
The Chicago Botanic Garden conducts a rare plant monitoring program, Plants of Concern (POC), which includes northeastern Illinois, southeastern Wisconsin DNR (includes the Chiwaukee Prairie) and northwestern Indiana. In addition, the Millennium Seed Bank Project (MSBP) for which some of the above specimens were collected, records data about plants in nature preserves and public lands (Table 8). Table 8. IBSP Carex at Chicago Botanic Garden Herbarium (
Carex species Collector Date Mo-day-yr C. buxbaumii D. Sollenberger 6-23-2008 C. crawei 6-24-2008 C. richardsonii 6-19-2008 C. siccata 6-23-2008 C. viridula #2802 Sollenberger K. DeGroft 5-23-1989 C. viridula #7410 7-07-1995
Sigmund Graenicher (1855-1937) was a Harvard College Botanist that collected in SE Wisconsin and the Waukegan Dunesland (Table 9). Table 9. Dunesland Carex: Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium (
Carex species Collector Date Mo-day-yr C. crawei Umbach L. M. 7-13-1909 C. muehlenbergii Graenicher S. 6-11-1911 C. pensylvanica 5-04-1911 C. viridula 6-12-1911
Robert Kral, professor at Vanderbilt University, Tennessee collected eight species from a swale along the railway in 1973 (Table 10). All were deposited at the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium. One specimen, C. vaginata 50363, was determined as C. tetanica (Table 10). Mohlenbrock’s Flora of Illinois: Carex 2nd ed. (2011) described C. vaginata, a northern species, as only at the Illinois Beach State Park. The European C. panicea was an early name in the U.S. for C. tetanica. Kral also collected a species not known in the Midwest, C. multimoda, now C. pachystachys, that has distinctive metallic scales.That species will be determined by Anton Reznicek. Keying errors are continual problems in identification. Robust specimens of C. tetanica were often indistinct from the dimensions of C. meadii. While C. brevior is common at IBSP, Chiwaukee Prairie and Waukegan Dunes, similar C. bicknellii has not been noted in sampling data nor collected, although it was recorded in Spring Bluff’s inventory. Table 10. IBSP Carex collected by Kral 5-31-1973 at Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (
Carex species Collector number MO ID W(1) C. aquatilis 50390 2672376 OBL C. multimoda=C. pachystachys 50382 2762677 OBL C. buxbaumii 50371 2710446 OBL C. haleana 50361 2759216 FACW+ C. lacustris 50381 2752486 & 2752592 OBL C. lasiocarpa 50375 50389 50391 50376 2752592 & 2750739 OBL C. panicea = tetanica 50376 2770480 & 2770490 FACW+ C. vaginata =tetanica 50363 2809216
Collection Notes: (1) refer to Swink & Wilhelm, 1994. W = evaluation c for wetland. preference. Dr. Anton Reznicek has determined Kral’s C. panicea and C. vaginata are C. tetanica. Field identification of fresh Carex during plot sampling is problematic. Usually culms are taken for a later bioscope examination, then pressed and dried for mounting on a herbarium sheet, then compared to other dried specimens. Fresh images with 10-20 magnification from camera-mounted bioscopes are helpful for field workers. Veins, also known as nerves, form diagnostic patterns on perigynia and sheaths. Texture differences such as the tiny bumps known as papilla versus smooth surfaces distinguish some species, such as the papillate sheaths of C. muehlenbergii. Two websites with photographs of Carex are Illinois Wildflowers and University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Robert Freckmann Herbarium website. Taxanomic names vary and C. abdita on the Illinois Wildflowers website is C. umbellata on Wisconsin’s Robert Freckmann Herbarium Website. C. annectens var. xanthocarpa in Wisconsin is C. brachyglossa in Illinois, which uses Flora of Illinois: Carex (Mohlelnbrock 2011). The Illinois Natural Areas Inventory (INAI) lists the plants in high quality natural areas, especially those with endangered species. Begun in 1975, it is maintained by IDNR. In 1976, INAI found ten Carices at the Illinois Beach State Park in their 0.25m sq. circular sampling plots (Table 11). The INAI classified prairie habitats as dry sand prairies if no dark A horizon soil was present, similar to sand dunes, while dry mesic prairies had dark A horizon soil. No Carex species were found on the beach or foredunes. Carices in dry sand prairie were C. pensylvanica, C. umbellata and C. meadii. The dry mesic prairie had C. pensylvanica while C. buxbaumii and C. aquatilis were noted in the wet sand prairie. Species in the panne were C. viridula, C. lasiocarpa and C. pellita. On the ridges with oak savanna were C. pensylvanica and C. muehlenbergii. Sedge meadows had C. buxbaumii, C. stricta, C. pellita, C. lasiocarpa, and C. spp. In the wetlands, C. lasiocarpa also grew in marshes with Typha sp. and other marshes with Scirpus validus. No Carices were noted at the seep with Betula papyrifera. The Illinois Natural Areas Inventory database of IBSP (IDNR 2012) has 16 Carex species from Gates’ list (1912) with the INAI sampling data from 1976, 1997, and 2010. The total was 20 IBSP species, 11 Spring Bluff only, and totaled 31 species (Table 11). Table 11. Carex of Illinois Natural Areas Inventories (INAI) of IBSP and Spring Bluff
Carex species Collector number MO ID W(1) C. aquatilis 50390 2672376 OBL C. multimoda=C. pachystachys 50382 2762677 OBL C. buxbaumii 50371 2710446 OBL C. haleana 50361 2759216 FACW+ C. lacustris 50381 2752486 & 2752592 OBL C. lasiocarpa 50375 50389 50391 50376 2752592 & 2750739 OBL C. panicea = tetanica 50376 2770480 & 2770490 FACW+ C. vaginata =tetanica 50363 2809216

Collection Notes: CC = coefficient of conservation (Swink & Wilhelm 1994). G= Gates 16 sp. collection 1907-1909. SB =Spring Bluff, the Illinois Lake County Forest Preserve that adjoins the IBSP at North Point Marina Inventory, supplied by IDNR Brad Semel, compiled by Kathleen Garness. Habitats of IBSP 1976: D= Dune, P = panne, WSP = wet sand prairie, SM=sedge meadow, DP = dry sand prairie. DMP = dry mesic prairie, SAV = savanna, MS = mesic swale. C. duriscula, possibly Kral’s C. multipoda, was omitted as out of range. The Gates’ C. trisperma collected by Gleason was not included as it was from a bog in Lake Villa, Illinois, not IBSP.

While the INAI’s September 1976 sampling of IBSP recorded ten Carex species, the 1997 sampling found five species and the August 2010 ground layer sampling recorded four Carices. The INAI’s 2012 sampling of Carex species at IBSP recorded 20 species, which is less than half of the herbarium species, partly due to missing species that bloom in March and April and mature in May, such as C. tonsa, C. richardsonii and C. tetanica. Of the 43 Carex species vouchered by herbaria, these 19 were found in INAI plots: C. aquatilis, C. bebbii, C. buxbaumii, C. comosa, C. crawei, C. granularis, C. hystericina, C. lacustris, C. lasiocarpa, C. muehlenbergii, C. pellita, C. pensylvanica, C. sterilis, C. stipata, C. stricta, C. tetanica, C. viridula, C. umbellata and C. vulpinoidea. The INAI did not find these vouchered Carex species from IBSP in their samplings: C. annectens var. xanthocarpa, C. aquatilis substricta, C. blanda, C. brevior, C. cephalophora, C. conoidea, C. cristatella, C. festucacea, C. grisea, C. heleana, C. hyalinolepis, C. molesta, C. tetanica, C. retrorsa, C. richardsonii, C. sartwellii, C. siccata, C. scoparia C. suberecta, C. tenera, and C. tonsa. INAI’s Spring Bluff Carices in samples differed from the IBSP samples partly because Spring Bluff is separated from Lake Michigan by the marina and has less habitats. Species noted in Spring Bluff and not yet found in IBSP are C. atherodes, C. bicknellii, C. haydenii, C. laxiflora, C. normalis, and C. rosea. C. tribuloides was listed in the LCFP Spring Bluff inventory but not in INAI inventories for IBSP or Spring Bluff (Table 12). In 1976 Wilson, Bowles and Moran sampled both IBSP and Spring Bluff for INAI. In August, Spring Bluff had four Carices: C. lacustris in the marsh, C. sterilis in the “fen” and C. lanuginosa in the wet prairie. C. stricta? was noted as C. spp. in the mesic prairie. Spring Bluff samplings were done in June, July, and September 1997 by Schennum, Basing, O’Leary and Leigh and resulted in 23 Carices: C. annectens, C. aquatilis var. aquatilis, C. atherodes, C. bebbii, C. bicknellii, C. buxbaumii, C. crawei, C. granularis, C. haydenii, C. interior, C. lacustris, C. laxiflora, C. meadii, C. muehlenbergii, C. pellita, C. pensylvanica, C. rosea, C. sartwellii, C. sterilis, C. stipata, C. stricta, C. tetanica, and C. umbellata.Table 12. Carex of the Zion ridge-beach plain in Wisconsin and Illinois.

num Carex species Common name IBSP SB CHI W 1 C. annectens var xanothocapa Small Yellow Fox Sedge 2 C. aquatilis Water Sedge √** 3 C. atherodes Wheat Sedge 4 C. aurea Golden Sedge √ 5 C. bebbii Bebb’s Sedge √ 6 C. bicknellii Bicknell’s Sedge 7 C. blanda Wood Sedge √ 8 C. brevior Plains Oval Sedge 9 C. buxbaumii Buxbaum’s Sedge √ 10 C. cephalophora Short-headed Sedge 11 C. comosa Bristly Sedge 12 C. conoidea Prairie Gray Sedge 13 C. crawei” “ Early Fen Sedge √ 14 C. cristatella Crested Sedge √ 15 C. cryptolepis Small Yellow Sedge 16 C. diandra Bog Panicled Sedge 17 C. festucacae Fescue Sedge 18 C. flava Large Yellow Sedge 19 C. garberi” “ False Golden Sedge √ 20 C. granularis var haleana Pale grain Sedge &#8730 √ 21 C. grisea” “ Gray Sedge √ 22 C. haydenii Hayden’s Sedge 23 C. heliophila Plains Sedge 24 C. hystericina Porcupine Sedge √ 25 C. hyalinolepis Shoreline Sedge 26 C. interior Inland Sedge 27 C. lacustris Lake Sedge √ 28 C. lasiocarpa Hairy–fruited Sedge 29 C. laxiflora Beech Wood Sedge 30 C. meadii Mead’s Sedge 31 C. molesta” “ Troublesome Sedge √ 32 C. muehlenbergii Sand Bracted Sedge √ 33 C. normalis Normal Sedge √ 34 C. pellita Woolly Sedge √ 35 C. pensylvanica Penn Sedge √ 36 C. prairea Fen Panicled Sedge 37 C. retrorsa Retrorse Sedge √ 38 C. richardsonii Richardson’s Sedge √ 39 C. rosea Rose Sedge 40 C. sartwellii Running Marsh Sedge √ 41 C. scoparia Pointed Broom Sedge 42 C. siccata Running Prairie Sedge 43 C. sparganioides Bur-reed Sedge √ 44 C. sterilis Fen Star Sedge 45 C. stipata” “ Saw-beak Sedge √ 46 C. stricta Tussock Sedge √ 47 C. suberecta Wedge Sedge 48 C. tenera Remote Sedge 49 C. tetanica =panicea Stiff Sedge √ 50 C. tonsa Shaved Sedge 51 C. tribuloides Bristle-bract Sedge √ 52 C. umbellata Umbrella Sedge √ 53 C. viridula Little Green Sedge √ 54 C. vulpinoidea” “ Brown Fox Sedge

Herbaria: IBSP =Illinois Beach State Park herbaria. CHI =Chiwaukee Prairie. SB =Spring Bluff LCFP. W = Waukegan Dunes. * INAI 2012 ** C. aquatilis var altior and substricta. In Table 12 above, 43 of the 54 species are vouchered herbarium specimens from IBSP. The remaining species will likely be found in the IBSP since they are in adjoining areas. The area known as Waukegan Dunes today is the southernmost part of the Zion ridge- beach plain and located south of the IBSP with parts on both east and west sides of the Union Pacific Railroad (Formerly Chicago-Northwestern before 1995). The Waukegan Harbor Citizens Advisory Group (CAG) sponsored a vegetation survey for this area in 2001, 2011 and 2012 (Milde 2012). The inventory included 26 Carices.
The Waukegan Dunes are almost a mile long and separates the Swimming Beach, B1, from the Midwest Generation Coal Station. The public swimming beach is contiguous with Area A1, the Waukegan Dunes and Harbor Area. Area A2 is Bowen Park, an upland wooded bluff that is not part of the dunes. Area B2 is a long slanted triangle that is west of the railway, north of Greenwood Avenue, and east of the bluff slope. The north end is a continuation of the corrugated ridge and swale from Illinois Beach State Park that is east of the railway. Area B2 is mostly degraded sand prairies and ruderal areas. D1 includes the eastern 1/3 of the degraded Johns Manville site (WIKI Watershed Central).Table 13 summarizes the IBSP 43 Carex specimens in 12 curated Midwest Herbaria

Table 13. IBSP Carex specimens in curated herbaria

Carex species Collector Datemo-da-yr Herbaria
C. annectens var. xan Curtis s.n. 6-11-2011 ISM, MOR. ILLS
C. aquatilis Gates 2498 6-08-1908 V0022529F
C. aquatilis Steyermark & Standley28109 6-13-1940 V0022523F
C. aquatilis Kral 5-31-1973 MO 2672376
C. aurea Cowles 8-13-1910 ISM 3513
C. aurea Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3509
C. aurea Fuller 6-04-1938 ISM 3511
C. aurea Bowles 652 6-22-1971 DEK
C. aurea Bowles 676b 6-22-1987 MOR 67908
C. bebbii Lunn 1163 6-25-1967 ETL
C. bebbii Curtis s.n. 9-12-2010 ISM
C. bebbii Curtis s.n. 7-07-2011 MOR 171922
C. bebbii Umbach 3745 7-03-1909 MOR 36015
C. blanda Lunn 3086 6-14-1969 ETL
C. brevior Swink 7-05-1948 MOR 7973
C. brevior Swink 7-04-1951 V0022600F
C. brevior Curtis s.n. 6-03-2010 ISM, MOR
C. buxbaumii Gates 1668 6-17-1907 ILL 10800
C. buxbaumii Gates 2504 6-08-1908 V0022630F,
C. buxbaumii Gates 7447 6-08-1908 ILL 10769
C. buxbaumii Lunn 5023 5-18-1970 ETL
C. buxbaumii Swink 6-08-1947 MOR 7443
C. buxbaumii Sollenberger 5-23-1989 MOR 111419
C. buxbaumii Umbach 5223 5-30-1911 MOR 7447v0263928 WIS
C. buxbaumii Umbach 31635 6-05-1909 v0263927 WIS
C. buxbaumii Umbach 2736 7-01-1908 v0262926 WIS
C. buxbaumii Graham 3696 7-14-1944 ISM 3696
C. buxbaumii Kral 5-31-1973 MO 2710446
C. buxbaumii Sollenberger 6-24-2008 CHIC
C. buxbaumii Curtis s.n. 6-08-2010 ISM
C. cephalophora Steyermark & Standley 6-13-1940 V0022659F
C. cephalophora Curtis s.n. 6-08-2010 ISM
C. comosa Gates 2917 8-07-1908 V0022658F, ILL10770
C. comosa Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3696
C. comosa Lunn 844 9-24-1966 ETL
C. conoidea Steyermark & Standley 28162 6-13-1940 V0022709F
C. conoidea Lunn 1010 & 1002 5-27-1967 ETL
C. conoidea Curtis s.n. 6-11-2011 ISM
C. conoidea Swink 6-05-1948 MOR 100033
C. conoidea Umbach 7857 6-08-1912 MOR 7857
C. conoidea Umbach 3306 6-11-1909 WIS V023875
C. conoidea Umbach5375 6-08-1912 WIS V02633876
C. crawei Gates 2502 6-08-1908 V0022712F, ILL10771
C. crawei Gates 2821 7-08-1908 V0022713F, ILL 10772
C. crawei Lunn 697, 1226 7-08-1967 ETL
C. crawei Umbach 7-03-1909 MIL 118113
C. crawei Sollenberger 6-24-2008 CHIC
C. crawei Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3572
C. crawei Swink 6-08-1947 MOR 7485
C. crawei Bowles 733 6-14-1988 MOR 81485
C. cristatella Curtis s.n. 8-20-2011 ISM
C. cristatella Curtis s.n. 6-26-2011 MOR 171935
C. cristatella Curtis s.n. 6-08-2011 MOR 171934
C. festucacea Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3609
C. garberi Gates 2503 7-08-1908 V0022830F, ILL 10767
C. garberi Bowles 675 6-22-1987 MOR 66786
C. garberi Lunn 00011 6-20-1969 ETL
C. garberi Milde & Nelson 7-20-2001 MOR 152266
C. granularis var. haleana Gates 2503 7-08-1908 V0022830F
C. granularis var. haleana Bennett 6-18-1960 ISM 75687
C. granularis var. haleana Kral 50361 5-31-1973 MO 2759216
C. granularis var. haleana Lunn 4050 7-13-1969 ETL
C. granularis var. haleana Curtis s.n. 8-20-2010 MOR, ILLS
C. granularis var. haleana Umbach 3229 6-05-1909 MOR 35978
C. grisea Curtis s.n. 7-08-2011 MOR 171919, ILLS
C. heliophila Swink 6-08-1947 MOR 99960
C. hyalinolepis Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3886
C. hystericina Gates 2787 7-01-1908 V0022949F, ILL 10773
C. hystericina Umbach 3275, 3283 6-11-1909 MOR 35974, v0263932WIS
C. hystericina Umbach 5372 6-08-1912 v0263933, & 934 WIS
C. hystericina Steyermark & Standley28139 6-14-1940 V0022953F
C. interior Curtis s.n. 6-06-2010 ISM, MOR, ILLS
C. lacustris = riparia Gates 2786 7-01-1908 V0023009F
C. lacustris = riparia Kral 50381 5-31-1973 MO2752486 & 2752592
C. lasiocarpa =filiformis   Gates 3027 7-16-1909 1379831 MICH
C. lasiocarpa Steyermark & Standley69931 5-31-1950 V0023027F
C. lacustris = riparia Gates 2786 6-09-1908 ILL 10774
C. lacustris = riparia Kral 50375 & 50378 5-31-1973 MO 2752592 & 2750739
C. molesta Curtis s.n. 6-30-2011 ISM
C. molesta Swink & Wetstein8852 6-29-1989 MOR 91727
C. molesta Umbach 3741 7-03-1909 MOR 35980
C. muehlenbergii“ Gates 3163 7-19-1909 ILL 10775, V0023131F
C. muehlenbergii“ Gates 2465 6-08-1908 ILL1397853, MICH 10774V0023130F
C. muehlenbergii“ Graenicher 4508 6-19-1911 MIL
C. muehlenbergii“ Graenicher 24509 6-19-1911 MIL
C. muehlenbergii“ Lunn 1225, 1175, 1056, 1207,1172 6-02-19676-25-1967 ETL
C. muehlenbergii“ Curtis s.n. 8-18-20106-30-2011 ISM, MOR
C. muehlenbergii Umbach 3763 7-03-09 v0264848 WISMOR 7708
C. muehlenbergii Umbach 5217 5-30-1911 MOR 35992
C. .multimoda =pachystachys Kral 50382 5-31-1073 MO 2762677
C. pellita Gates 3027 6-16-1909 V0023205F
C. pellita Graham 7-24-1944 ISM 3700
C. pellita Lunn 1057, 1131, 5403, 5-22-1972  6-23-1967 ETL
C. pellita Steyermark & Standley28201 6-13-1940 V0023210F
C. pellita Swink, Johnson, Betz 7-4-1986 MOR 66126
C. pellita Umbach 3309 6-11-1909 MOR 35997
C. pellita Curtis s.n. 6-08-2011 ILLS, ISM, MOR 171921
C. pellita = lanuginosa Umbach 31653 6-05-1909 v0263935 WIS
C. pellita =filiformis Umbach 5226 5-30-1911 v0264834 WIS
C. pellita = filiformif Umbach 3309 6-11-1909 V0264837 WIS
C. pellita= houghtonii Umbach 5376 6-08-1912 V0264836 WIS
C. pensylvanica Graenicher 24385 5-04-1911 MIL
C. pensylvanica Lunn 5, 8, 927, 972 4-28-19675-20-1967 ETL
C. pensylvanica Curtis s.n. 6-26-2011 MOR 171936, ISM
C. retrorsa Milde & Nelson 7-09-2001 MOR 152258
C. richardsonii Dritz 242 5-02-1982 MOR 79793
C. richardsonii Swink 5-20-1950 V0023327F
C. richardsonii Wilhelm 13746 4-24-1986 MOR 100026
C. richardsonii Sollenberger 6-19-2008 CHIC
C. sartwellii Steyermark & Standley 28138 7-13-1940 V0023361F
C. sartwellii Swink 6-08-1947 MOR 100026
C. sartwellii Curtis n.s. 6-30-2011 ISM
C. scoparia Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3570
C. scoparia Lunn  1163b 6-25-1967 LFC
C. siccata Sollenberger 6-23-2008 CHIC
C. siccata Curtis s.n. 5-29-2010 ISM
C. sparganioides Curtis s.n. 6-30-2011 ISM, ILLS
C. sterilis Umbach 6020 5-30-1911 MOR 36020
C. stipata Swink 6-05-1948 MOR 100040
C. stipata Lunn 4040 7-13-1969 ETL
C. stipata Umbach 5216 5-30-1911 MOR 7814
C. stricta Gates 3052 6-16-1909 V0023465F & ILL10777
C. stricta Gates 2498 6-22-1909 V0023486F
C. stricta Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3859
C. stricta Lunn 1008, 1161, 5411 5-25-19675-27-19676-25-1965 ETL
C. stricta Curtis s.n. 6-08-2011 ISM, ILL. MOR 171934
C. stricta Umbach 7833 5-30-1911 MOR 7833
C. suberecta Lunn 1129 6-23-1968 ETL
C. suberecta Umbach 3715 7-03-1909 MOR 7847
C. tetanica Kral 5039150376 5-31-1973 MO 2770480, 2770490
C. tetanica Lunn 5182 6-25-1965 ETL
C. tetanica Graham 7-14-1944 ISM 3873
C. tetanica Bennett 53020 7-04-1955 ISM 53020
C. tetanica Bowles 676a 6-22-1987 MOR 67787
C. tetanica Lunn 5182, 5082 5-18-1970 ETL
C. tetanica Curtis s.n. 5-15-2010 ISM, ILLS, MOR 171920
C. tetanica Milde 6-30-2011 MOR 173488
C. tonsa Bowles 735 6-14-1988 MOR 81483
C. tonsa Wilhelm 13745 4-24-1986 MOR 79792
C. umbellata Gates 2474 6-08-1908 V0023588F & Ill 10779
C. umbellata Swink 6-08-1947 MOR 67786
C. viridula Sollenberger &DeGroft 2802 5-23-1989 CHIC
C. viridula Sollenberger &DeGroft7410 7-07-1995 CHIC
C. viridula Umbach 3307 6-11-1909 MOR 7893
C. viridula Umbach 7-03-1909 WIS V0263924
C. viridula Gates 2509, 2517 6-08-1908 V0023627F, ISM 2517
C. viridula Steyermark  & Standley 28192 6-13-1940 V0023634F
C. viridula Steyermark  & Standley 40872 8-03-1941 V0023635F
C. viridula Graenicher 24494 6-12-1911 MIL
C. viridula Lunn 115, 838, 849, 1322, 1323,1394, 1206, 1291,1325, 2059. 7-02-196710-18-19668 more ETL
C. viridula Evers 6-04-1963 MO76202
C. viridula Curtis s.n. 6-30-2011 ISM
C. viridula = flava Umbach 3307 6-11-1909 MOR 7893
C. viridula = flava Umbach 3195 6-05-1909 V0264840 WIS
C. viridula Umbach  2240 7-01-1908 V0264839 WIS
C. vulpinoidea Umbach 3758 7-03-1909 v0263924 WISMOR 7902
C. vulpinoidea Curtis s.n. 8-11-2010 ISM, MOR, ILLS

Notes: CHIC = Chicago Botanic Garden; F = Field Museum; ILL = University of Illinois Plant Biology; ILLS = Illinois Natural History Survey; ISM = Illinois State Museum; ETL= Lake Forest College; MICH = University of Michigan- Ann Arbor; MOR = Morton Arboretum; MIL = Milwaukee Public Museum; WIS = University of Wisconsin-Madison; MO = Missouri Botanical Garden; DEK = Northern Illinois University.


The Illinois Beach State Park and Nature Preserve have 43 Carex species with specimens in 12 herbaria. Six new species were discovered during fieldwork in 2010-2012, of which four were woodland species and likely migrants resulting from habitat alterations: C. annectens E. P. Bicknell var. xanthocarpa (Kuk.) Wiegand, C. cristatella Britt., C. grisea Wahlenb., C. interior L. H. Bailey, C. molesta Mack., and C. sparganioides Willd. The total of Carices from Illinois Beach State Park, Chiwaukee Prairie, Spring Bluff and Waukegan Dunes was 54 species with only 10 species in common to all four locations. Species that grow in one or more adjoining sites and likely to found growing in IBSP are: C. atherodes Spreng., C. bicknellii Britton, C. cryptolepis Mack., C. diandra Schrank., C. flava L., C. haydenii Dewey, C. laxiflora Lam., C. meadii Dewey, C. normalis Mack., C. prairea Dewey, C. rosea Schkuhr, C. tenera Dewey, and C. tribuloides Wahlenb.


I am grateful to all the responders to my many questions. Thank you. Chicago Botanic Garden: Nyree Zerega Conservation Research Institute: Gerould Wilhelm Field Museum, Chicago: Christine Niezgoda IDNR Illinois Natural Heritage Database: Tara Kieninger Illinois Department of Natural Resources: Duane Ambroz, Greg Behm Illinois State Geological Survey: Donald Luman, Bryan Luman Illinois Native Plant Society: Kathy Garness Illinois Natural History Survey, Rick Phillippe: Diane Szafoni Illinois Nature Preserves Commission: Kelly Neal Illinois State Museum Herbarium: Hong Qian Lake County Mapping Division: Richard Knodel Lake County Forest Preserves: Ken Klick, Jim Anderson Lake Forest College: Victoria Jones, Sean Menke, Ken Weik Millennium Seed Bank Project: David Sollenberger Missouri Botanical Garden: George Yatskievych Morton Arboretum: Bethany Brown, Andrew Hipp, Marlin Bowles, Rita Hassert Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium: Neil Leubke New York Botanical Garden Herbarium: Robert Naczi Plants of Concern: Susanne Masi University of Illinois Plant Biology Herbarium: Ken Robertson University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Herbarium: Anton Reznicek University of Wisconsin-Madison Herbarium: Mark Wetter, Ted Cochrane University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point Herbarium: Merel Black Consultants: Patricia Marlowe, Environmental Consultant, Margo Milde, Botany Consultant, Waukegan Dunes Sheryl DeVore, Managing Editor of Shaw Media. I also am grateful to the collectors of Carex who probably enjoyed this puzzling Carex genus as I have. When I began, I expected less than 20 vouchered species. The discovery of every new species was amazing, and as of this report, 43 Carex species at IBSP have voucher specimens in curated Midwest herbaria. Table 11 documents 23 Collectors of Carex at Illinois Dunes Beach State Park: Betz, Bowles, Bennett, Cowles, Curtis, DeGroft, Dritz, Fuller, Gates, Graenicher, Graham, Johnson, Kral, Lunn, Milde & Nelson, Sollenberger, Steyermark, Standley, Swink, Wetstein, Wilhelm, and Umbach.


Illinois Natural History Survey Botany Collections
Illinois State Museum Herbarium, Springfield
Lake Forest College Herbarium
Southern Illinois University Herbarium, Carbondale
Stover-Ebinger Herbarium. Eastern Illinois University



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Cowles, H.C. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Bot. Gaz. 27.
Gates, F. C. 1912. The vegetation of the beach area in northeastern Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin. Bull. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 9: 255-372
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Milde, M. 2012. Floristic Inventories of Waukegan Dunes and Beach and Adjacent Properties in Waukegan Harbor of Concern and Extended Study Area Work
Mohlenbrock, R.H. 2011. The illustrated flora of Illinois—Sedges: Carex. 2nd Ed. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Pepoon, H.S. 1927. An Annotated Flora of Chicago Area. Chicago: Chi. Acad. Sci.
Ross, H. H. 1963. The Dunesland Heritage of Illinois, Circular 49, Illinois Natural History Survey with the Illinois State Department of Conservation.
Sanders, P. 1969. Kenosha Sand Dunes. Wis. Acad. Review 16 (3):2-6
Swink, F., and Wilhelm, G. 1994. Plants of the Chicago region. 4th ed. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Voss, G. and Reznicek, A. 2011. Field Manual of Michigan Flora. U-Michigan Press.
Waukegan Harbor Citizens Advisor Group map



A Illinois Nature Preserves Collecting Permit Permit obtained from Kelly Neal at: 6-6-2010 “INPC typically does not allow collections within nature preserves. If you are only collecting culms, INPC will allow collection of up to 3 culms with the following conditions: 1. The species has not been collected previously at the site and placed in a curated collection-you are required to check major collections. 2. The species is not listed as threatened or endangered. 3. Collection represents no more than 20% of the population (i.e., there must be at least fifteen culms present for that species before you can collect). 4. The collections must be placed in a curated collection such as the Natural History Survey or Field Museum. 5. Please refer to the below excerpt from the IL Administrative Code, Management of Nature Preserves for additional information on collecting in nature preserves. Also, when onsite, be sure to minimize trampling and disturbances to sensitive plant communities. Every effort should be made to prevent the spread of exotic or invasive plants/plant propagules at the site, including cleaning shoes, pant cuffs, equipment, etc. before moving on after being in areas containing invasive plants. APPENDIX B

New Carex species at IBSPScreen Shot 2013-08-29 at 7.27.59 PM Upper and right: C. grisea, Wood Gray Sedge C. sparganioides, Loose-headed Bracted Sedge C. molesta, Field Oval Sedge C. conjuncta, Green Headed Fox Sedge C. interior, Prairie Star Sedge Lower right: C. annectens var. xanthocarpa, Small Yellow Fox Sedge C. cristatella, Crested Oval Sedge
copyright © 2014 Linda Curtis, botanist


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